Digha Nikaya 13
Tevijja Sutta
The Sutta (about those who have) the Knowledge of the Three (Vedas)

Adapted by Leigh Brasington

Adapter's Introduction
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This sutta was not translated by me. I just edited it. The method was as follows:

I have also left in Rhys Davids's footnotes where I think they are applicable -- a few have been edited, some have been removed -- that's why the footnote numbers are not consecutive. I also added my own footnotes -- those are the ones that end in 'a'.

Notice that this Sutta only discusses the graduated training up thru the 1st Jhana. And that here the 1st Jhana is used as a basis from which to generate The Brahma̅ Viharas - literally The Divine Abodes, meaning the Four Supreme Emotions. The method would seem to be that the "thinking and more thinking" (vitakka & vicara) of the 1st Jhana are intentionally made to become the Brahma̅ Viharas practices -- that is one does not leave behind the "rapture and happiness" (piti & sukha) of the 1st jhana - one continues sustaining it and intentionally directs the thinking to pervading the universe with these divine emotions.

By dwelling with a mind full of these emotions, one can acheive Union with Brahma̅. It's important to note that in this sutta, the Buddha is using "Union with Brahma̅" as a metaphor for Nibbana - a point missed by the mainstream Theravadan tradition as well as by early translators.
 

Digha Nikaya 13
Tevijja Sutta
The Sutta (about those who have) the Knowledge of the Three (Vedas)

1. Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was journeying through Kosala with a company of about five hundred Bhikkhus. [4a] He came to the Brahmin village in Kosala which is called Manasakata. And there the Blessed One stayed in the mango grove, on the bank of the river Aciravati, to the north of Manasakata.

2. Now at that time many very distinguished and wealthy Brahmins were staying at Manasakata; such as Kanki the Brahmin, Tarukkha the Brahmin, Pokkharasadi the Brahmin, Janussoni the Brahmin, Todeyya the Brahmin, and other very distinguished and wealthy Brahmins. [5]

3. Now a discussion arose between (the Brahmin students) Va̅seṭṭha and Bha̅radva̅ja -- while they were taking exercise (after their bath), walking up and down in a thoughtful mood -- as to which was the true path, and which the false. [6]

4. The young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha said: 'This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been taught by the Brahmin Pokkharasadi.'

5. The young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja said: 'This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been taught by the Brahmin Tarukkha.'

6. But neither was the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha able to convince the young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja, nor was the young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja able to convince the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha.

7. Then the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha said to the young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja:

'Bha̅radva̅ja, that recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyas, who went forth from the Sakya clan to practice the spiritual life, is now staying at Manasakata in the mango grove on the bank of the river Aciravati, to the north of Manasakata. Now regarding the venerable Gotama, this admirable report has been spread: "The Blessed One is an Arahat, a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of those to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened and exalted."

Come then, Bha̅radva̅ja, let us go to the place where the recluse Gotama is staying; and when we have come there, let us ask the recluse Gotama about this matter. However the recluse Gotama will answer us, let us keep that in mind. [7]

'Very well, my friend!' said the young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja in assent to the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha.

8. Then the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha and the young Brahmin Bha̅radva̅ja went on to the place where the Blessed One was staying. When they arived, they approached the Blessed One, paid homage and sat to one side. While they were seated there the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha said to the Blessed One:

'As we were taking exercise and walking up and down, Gotama, a discussion arose between us on which was the true path, and which the false. I said, "This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahmin Pokkharasadi."

'Bha̅radva̅ja said, "This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahmin Tarukkha."

'Regarding this matter, Gotama, there is a quarrel, a dispute, a difference of opinion between us.'

9. 'So you say, Va̅seṭṭha, that you said, "This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahmin Pokkharasadi."

'While Bha̅radva̅ja said, "This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahmin Tarukkha."

'So, Va̅seṭṭha, what is the quarrel, dispute, difference of opinion between you?' [8]

10. 'Concerning the true path and the false, Gotama. Various Brahmins teach various paths. The Addhariya Brahmins, the Tittiriya Brahmins, the Chandoka Brahmins, [the Chandava Brahmins], the Bavharija Brahmins. [9] Are all those paths to salvation? Are they all paths which will lead one who acts according to them to the state of union with Brahma̅?

'Just as near a village or a town there are many and various paths, [10] Gotama, yet they all meet together in the village -- just in that way there are all the various paths taught by various Brahmins -- the Addhariya Brahmins, the Tittiriya Brahmins, the Chandoka Brahmins, [the Chandava Brahmins], the Bavharija Brahmins. Are all these paths to salvation? Are they all paths which will lead one who acts according to them to the state of union with Brahma̅?'

11. 'Do you say "they lead," Va̅seṭṭha?'

'I say so, Gotama.'

'Do you really say "they lead," Va̅seṭṭha?

'So I say, Gotama.'

12. 'But yet, Va̅seṭṭha, is there a single one of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, who has ever seen Brahma̅, face to face?'

'No, indeed, Gotama.'

'Or is there then, Va̅seṭṭha, a single one of the teachers of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas who has seen Brahma̅ face to face?'

'No, indeed, Gotama!'

'Or is there then, Va̅seṭṭha, a single one of the pupils of the teachers of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas who has seen Brahma̅ face to face?'

'No, indeed, Gotama!'

'Or is there then, Va̅seṭṭha, a single one of the Brahmins up to the seventh generation who has seen Brahma̅ face to face?'

'No, indeed, Gotama!'

13. 'Well then, Va̅seṭṭha, those ancient Rishis of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, the authors of the verses, the expounders of the verses, whose ancient words the Brahmins of today chant over again and repeat; intoning and reciting exactly as has been intoned and recited -- those such as Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bha̅radva̅ja, Va̅seṭṭha, Kassapa, and Bhagu [11] -- did they speak thus, saying: "We know and see how, when and where Brahma̅ appears?"'

'Not so, Gotama!'

14. 'Then you say, Va̅seṭṭha that none of the Brahmins, nor their teachers, nor their pupils, even up to the seventh generation, has ever seen Brahma̅ face to face. And that even the Rishis of old, the authors and expounders of the verses, of the ancient form of words which the Brahmins of today so carefully intone and recite precisely as they have been handed down -- even they did not pretend to know or to have seen how, when and where Brahma̅ appears. [12] So what the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas have actually said is "Regarding what we don't know, what we have not seen, we can show the way to a state of union with that, and we can say: 'This Is the straight path, this is the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with Brahma̅!'"

'Now, what think you, Va̅seṭṭha? Does it not follow, this being so, that the talk of the Brahmins, versed though they be in the Three Vedas, turns out to be foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, that being so, it follows that the talk of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!'

15. 'Va̅seṭṭha, that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know, neither have seen -- such a thing is impossible!

'Just, Va̅seṭṭha, as when a string of blind men are clinging one to the other [13], the first one doesn't see, the middle one doesn't see, and the last one doesn't see -- just so, Va̅seṭṭha, the talk of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas is but blind talk: the first doesn't see, the middle one doesn't see, and the last one doesn't see. The talk then of these Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas turns out to be ridiculous, mere words, a vain and empty thing!

16. 'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Can the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas -- like other, ordinary, folk -- see the Moon and the Sun as they pray to, praise, and worship them, turning round with clasped hands towards the places where they rise and where they set?'

'Certainly, Gotama, they can.' [14]

17. 'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? The Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, who can very well -- like other, ordinary, folk -- see the Moon and the Sun as they pray to, praise, and worship them, turning round with clasped hands to the place where they rise and where they set -- are those Brahmins, versed in the Three Vedas, able to point out the way to a state of union with the Moon or the Sun, saying: "This is the straight path, this the direct way to salvation, and leads one who acts according to it to the state of union with the Moon or the Sun?".' [14a]

'Certainly, not, Gotama.'

18. 'So you say, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Brahmins are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen, and you further say that neither any one of them, nor of their pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahma̅, And you further say that even the Rishis of old, whose words they hold in such deep respect, did not pretend to know, or to have seen how, when and where Brahma̅ appears. Yet these Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas say they can point out the way to union with that which they don't know and have never have seen. [15] Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Does it not follow that, this being so, the talk of the Brahmins, versed though they be in the Three Vedas, turns out to be foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, that being so, it follows that the talk of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!'

19. 'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. That that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know nor have seen -- such a thing is impossible!'

'Just, Va̅seṭṭha, as if a man were to say, "I'm going to seek out and love the most beautiful woman in this land!"

'And people would ask him, "Well, good friend, this most beautiful woman in the land, whom you love and long for, do you know whether that beautiful woman is a noble lady or a Brahmin woman, or of the trader class, or of menial birth?"

'But when so asked, he would have to answer: "No."

'And when people would ask him, "Well, good friend, this most beautiful woman in all the land, whom you so love and long for, do you know the name of that most beautiful woman, or what her family name is, whether she is tall or short or of medium height, dark or fair or golden in colour, or in what village or town or city she lives?"

'But when so asked, he would have to answer: "No."

'Then people would say to him: "So then, good friend, you love and long for someone you do not know and never have seen."

'And then when so asked, he would have to answer: "Yes."

'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Would it not turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man is foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, it would turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man is foolish talk!'

20. 'So, Va̅seṭṭha, you say that the Brahmins are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen, and you further say that neither any one of them, nor of their pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahma̅. And you further say that even the Rishis of old, whose words they hold in such deep respect, did not pretend to know, or to have seen how, when and where Brahma̅ appears. Yet these Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas say they can point out the way to union with that which they don't know nor have seen. Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Does it not follow that, this being so, the talk of the Brahmins, versed though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, that being so, it follows that the talk of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!'

'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. That that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know nor have seen -- such a thing is impossible.

21. 'Just, Va̅seṭṭha, as if a man were to build a staircase for a palace in the place at a crossroads. And people would say to him, "Well, good friend, this palace for which you are building this staircase, do you know whether it faces the east, or the south, or the west, or the north? whether it is high or low or of medium height?"

'And when so asked, he would have to answer: "No."

'Then people would say to him, "But then, good friend, you are making a staircase to mount up into something -- taking it for a palace -- which, all the while, you do not know nor have seen!"

'And when so asked, he would have to answer: "Yes".

'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Would it not turn out. that being so, that the talk of that man is foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, it would turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man is foolish talk!'

22. 'So, Va̅seṭṭha, you say that the Brahmins are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen, and you further say that neither any one of them, nor of their pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahma̅. And you further say that even the Rishis of old, whose words they hold in such deep respect, did not pretend to know, or to have seen how, when and where Brahma̅ appears. Yet these Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas say they can point out the way to union with that which they don't know nor have seen. Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Does it not follow that, this being so, the talk of the Brahmins, versed though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk?'

'Certainly, Gotama, that being so, it follows that the talk of the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!'

23. 'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. That that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know nor have seen -- such a thing is impossible.

24. 'Again, Va̅seṭṭha, if this river Aciravati were full of water to the brim, even overflowing, [16] and a man with business on the other side, bound for the other side, headed for the other side, were to come up and want to cross over. And standing on this bank, he would invoke the further bank saying, "Come here, O further bank! Come over to this side!"'

'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Would the further bank of the river Aciravati, by reason of that man's invoking and praying and hoping and praising, come over to this side?'

'Certainly not, Gotama!'

25. 'In just the same way, Va̅seṭṭha, do the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, -- omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahmin, and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmins -- say thus: "Indra we call upon, Soma we call upon, Varuna we call upon, Isana we call upon, Pajapati we call upon, Brahma̅ we call upon, [Mahiddhi we call upon, Yama we call upon]!" [17] Va̅seṭṭha, that those Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahmin, and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmins -- that they, by reason of their invoking and praying and hoping and praising, should, after death and at the break up of the body, become united with Brahma̅ -- such a thing is impossible! [18]

26. 'Just, Va̅seṭṭha, as if this river Aciravati were full to the brim, even overflowing, and a man with business on the other side, headed for the other side, bound for the other side, were to come up and want to cross over. And on this bank, he were to be tightly bound with his arms behind his back by a strong chain. Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, would that man be able to get over from this bank of the river Aciravati to the further bank?'

'Certainly not, Gotama!'

27. 'In the same way, Va̅seṭṭha, there are five strands of sense desire, which are called in the Discipline of the Noble Ones, a "chain" and a "bond." What are the five?

'Forms perceptible to the eye; desirable, agreeable, pleasant, attractive, that arouse desire and generate delight. Sounds of the same kind perceptible to the ear. Odours of the same kind perceptible to the nose. Tastes of the same kind perceptible to the tongue. Substances of the same kind perceptible to the body by touch. These five strands of sense desire are called, in the Discipline of the Noble Ones, a "chain" and a "bond." And, Va̅seṭṭha, the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas cling to these five strands of sense desire, they are infatuated with them, attached to them, do not see the danger in them, don't know how unreliable they are, and so they enjoy them. [19]

28. 'And Va̅seṭṭha, that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahmin, and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmins -- clinging to these five strands of sense desire, infatuated by them, attached to them, not seeing their danger, not knowing their unreliability, and so enjoying them -- that these Brahmins should after death, on the dissolution of the body, become united with Brahma̅, -- such a thing is impossible!

29. 'Again, Va̅seṭṭha, if this river Aciravati were full of water even to the brim, and overflowing, and a man with business on the other side, headed for the other side, bound for the other side, were to come up and want to cross over. Suppose he covered himself up with a shawl, even his head, and were to lie down on this bank and go to sleep. Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha? Would that man be able to get over from this bank of the river Aciravati to the further bank?'

'Certainly not, Gotama!'

30. 'And in the same way, Va̅seṭṭha, there are these Five Hindrances, in the Discipline of the Noble Ones, which are called "veils," "hindrances," "obstacles," and "entanglements". What are the five?

The hindrance of sensual desire,
The hindrance of ill will,
The hindrance of sloth and torpor,
The hindrance of restlessness and worry,
The hindrance of skeptical doubt.

'These are the Five Hindrances, Va̅seṭṭha, which, in the Discipline of the Noble Ones, are called "veils," "hindrances," "obstacles," and "entanglements".

'Now, Va̅seṭṭha, the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas are veiled, hindered, obstructed, and entangled by these Five Hindrances.

'And Va̅seṭṭha, that Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas, but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahmin, and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmins -- veiled, hindered, obstructed, and entangled by these Five Hindrances -- that these Brahmins should after death, on the dissolution of the body, become united with Brahma̅ -- such a thing is impossible!

31. 'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, and what have you heard from the Brahmins aged and well-advanced in years, when the students and teachers are talking together? Is Brahma̅, in possession of wives and wealth, or is he not?' [22]

'He is not, Gotama.'

'Is his mind full of anger, or free from anger?'

'Free from anger, Gotama.'

Is his mind full of malice, or free from malice?'

'Free from malice, Gotama.'

'Is his mind tarnished, or is it pure?' [23]

'It is pure, Gotama.'

Has he self-mastery, or has he not?' [24]

'He has, Gotama.'

32. 'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, are the Brahmins versed in the Vedas in the possession of wives and wealth, or are they not?'

'They are, Gotama.'

'Have they anger in their hearts, or have they not?

'They have, Gotama.'

'Do they bear malice, or do they not?'

'They do, Gotama.'

'Are they pure in heart, or are they not?'

'They are not, Gotama.'

'Have they self-mastery, or have they not?'

'They have not, Gotama.'

33. 'Then you say, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Brahmins are in possession of wives and wealth, and that Brahma̅ is not. Can there then be agreement and likeness between the Brahmins with their wives and property, and Brahma̅, who has none of these things?'

'Certainly not, Gotama!'

34. 'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. That these Brahmins versed in the Vedas, who live married and wealthy, should after death, at the break up of the body, become united with Brahma̅, who has none of these things -- such a thing is impossible!'

35. 'Then you say, too, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Brahmins bear anger and malice in their hearts, and are tarnished in heart and lack self control, while Brahma̅ is free from anger and malice, is pure in heart, and has self-mastery. Now can there then be agreement and likeness between the Brahmins and Brahma̅?'

'Certainly not, Gotama!'

36. 'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. That these Brahmins versed in the Vedas and yet having anger and malice in their hearts, sinful, and uncontrolled, should after death, at the break up of the body, become united with Brahma̅, who is free from anger and malice, pure in heart, and has self-mastery -- such a thing is impossible!

'So then, Va̅seṭṭha, the Brahmins, versed though they be in the Three Vedas, when they sit down (on this bank), are actually sinking down (in the mire); [25] and so sinking they are arriving only at despair, while thinking that they are crossing over into some happier land.

'It is for this reason that the threefold wisdom of the Brahmins, wise in their Three Vedas, is called a waterless desert, their threefold wisdom is called a pathless jungle, their threefold wisdom is called perdition!'

37. When he had thus spoken, the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha said to the Blessed One:

'I have heard, Gotama, that you know the way to the state of union with Brahma̅.'

'What do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, is Manasakata near here, not far from here?'

'Just so, Gotama. Manasakata is near here, it is not far.'

'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, suppose there were a man born in Manasakata, a man who had lived his whole life in Manasakata, and if people were to ask him which was the way to Manasakata, would that man, born and brought up in Manasakata, be in any doubt or difficulty?'

'Certainly not, Gotama! And why? If the man had been born and brought up in Manasakata, every road that leads to Manasakata would be perfectly familiar to him.'

38. 'That man, Va̅seṭṭha, born and brought up in Manasakata, if he were asked the way to Manasakata, might fall into doubt and difficulty, but the Tathagata, when asked about the path which leads to the world of Brahma̅, has neither doubt nor difficulty. For Brahma̅, I know, Va̅seṭṭha, and the world of Brahma̅, and the path which leads to it. Yes, I know it just as one who has entered the Brahma̅-world, and has been born within it!' [25a]

39. At this, Va̅seṭṭha, the young Brahmin, said to the Blessed One: 'Just as I have heard, Gotama, the recluse Gotama knows the way to the state of union with Brahma̅. Excellent! Let the venerable Gotama please show us the way to the state of union with Brahma̅, let the venerable Gotama save the Brahmin race!' [26]

'Listen then, Va̅seṭṭha, and pay attention, I will speak!'

'So be it, Lord!' said the young Brahmin Va̅seṭṭha in assent to the Blessed One.

40. Then the Blessed One spoke, and said:

'Know, Va̅seṭṭha, that (from time to time) a Tathagata arises in the world, a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of men to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, enlightened and exalted. Having realized by his own direct knowledge this world with its gods, its Ma̅ras, and its Brahma̅s, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its rulers and people, he makes it known to others. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, possessing meaning and phrasing; he reveals the holy life that is fully complete and purified.

41. 'A householder (gahapati), or a householder's son, or one born into some other family, hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathagata. Endowed with such faith, he reflects: 'The household life is crowded, a path of dust. Going forth is like the open air. It is not easy living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, like a polished shell. What if I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the saffron robes, and go forth from the household life into homelessness?"

'After some time he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small; he abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

42. 'When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the rules of the monastic code, possessed of proper behavior and resort. Having taken up the rules of training, he trains himself in them, seeing danger in the slightest faults. He comes to be endowed with wholesome bodily and verbal action, his livelihood is purified, and he is possessed of good conduct. He guards the doors of his sense faculties, is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension, and is content.

  The Small Section on Moral Discipline

43-75. 'And how, Va̅seṭṭha, is his conduct good? Abandoning the taking of life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. This is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but in honesty with a pure mind. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning incelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Discipline. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

'He eats only in one part of the day, refraining from food at night and from eating at improper times.

'He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from witnessing unsuitable shows.

'He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

'He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

'He abstains from accepting gold and silver.

'He abstains from accepting uncooked grain... raw meat... women and girls... male and female slaves... goats and sheep... fowl and pigs... elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares... fields and property.

'He abstains from running messages... from buying and selling... from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures... from bribery, deception, and fraud.

'He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

'This, too, is part of good conduct.

  The Intermediate Section on Moral Discipline

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant life such as these -- plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buddings, and seeds -- he abstains from damaging seed and plant life such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these -- stored-up food, stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up vehicles, stored-up bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat -- he abstains from consuming stored-up goods such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to watching shows such as these -- dancing, singing, instrumental music, plays, ballad recitations, hand-clapping, cymbals and drums, magic lantern scenes, acrobatic and conjuring tricks, elephant fights, horse fights, buffalo fights, bull fights, goat fights, ram fights, cock fights, quail fights; fighting with staves, boxing, wrestling, war-games, roll calls, battle arrays, and regimental reviews -- he abstains from watching shows such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to heedless and idle games such as these -- eight-row chess, ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins, dice, stick games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy pipes, playing with toy plows, turning somersaults, playing with toy windmills, toy measures, toy chariots, toy bows, guessing letters drawn in the air, guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities -- he abstains from heedless and idle games such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to high and luxurious furnishings such as these -- over-sized couches, couches adorned with carved animals, long-haired coverlets, multi-colored patchwork coverlets, white woolen coverlets, woolen coverlets embroidered with flowers or animal figures, stuffed quilts, coverlets with fringe, silk coverlets embroidered with gems; large woolen carpets; elephant, horse, and chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs, deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings, couches with red cushions for the head and feet -- he abstains from using high and luxurious furnishings such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these -- rubbing powders into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading the limbs, using mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, creams, face-powders, mascara, bracelets, head-bands, decorated walking sticks, ornamented water-bottles, swords, fancy sunshades, decorated sandals, turbans, gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white robes -- he abstains from using scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these -- tales of kings, of robbers, of ministers of state; tales of war, of terrors, of battles; talk about food and drink, about clothes and beds and garlands and perfumes; talk about relatives; talk about carriages, villages, towns, cities, and countries; tales about women and heroes; street- and well-gossip; ghost stories; desultory chatter; legends about the creation of the land and sea; and speculations about existence and non-existence -- he abstains from talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these -- "You understand this doctrine and discipline? I'm the one who understands this doctrine and discipline. How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You're practicing wrongly. I'm practicing rightly. I'm being consistent. You're not. What should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has been overthrown. You're defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!" -- he abstains from debates such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as these -- kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests, householders, or youths [who say], "Go here, go there, take this there, fetch that here" -- he abstains from running messages and errands for people such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, engage in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading [improper ways of trying to gain material support from donors] such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

  The Large Section on Moral Discipline

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as: determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears, arrows, bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves, female slaves; elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl, quails, lizards, long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals -- he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as forecasting:

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as forecasting:

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as forecasting:

or they earn their living by counting, accounting, calculation, composing poetry, or teaching hedonistic arts and doctrines -- he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

'Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of good conduct.

'Just as a head-anointed noble warrior who has defeated his enemies sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, so the bhikkhu who is thus possessed of good conduct sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by good conduct. Endowed with this noble aggregate of good conduct, he experiences within himself a blameless happiness.

  Restraint of the Sense Faculties

'And how does a bhikkhu guard the doors of his senses? On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which -- if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye -- evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound with the ear... On smelling an odor with the nose... One tasting a flavor with the tongue... On touching a tactile sensation with the body... On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which -- if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect -- evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he experiences within himself an unblemished happiness. This is how a bhikkhu guards the doors of his senses.

  Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

'And how is a bhikkhu possessed of mindfulness and clear comprehension? In going forward and returning, a bhikkhu acts with clear comprehension. In looking ahead and looking aside, he acts with clear comprehension. In bending and stretching his limbs, he acts with clear comprehension. In wearing his robes and cloak and using his almsbowl, he acts with clear comprehension. In eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting, he acts with clear comprehension. In defecating and urinating, he acts with clear comprehension. In walking, standing, sitting, lying down, waking up, speaking, and remaining silent, he acts with clear comprehension. This is how a bhikkhu is possessed of mindfulness and clear comprehension.

  Contentment

'And how is a bhikkhu content? Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to provide for his body and almsfood to provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest necessities along. This is how a bhikkhu is content.

  The Abandoning of the Hindrances

'Endowed with this noble aggregate of good conduct, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and clear comprehension, and this noble contentment, he resorts to a secluded dwelling - a forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a cremation ground, a jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After returning from his alms-round, following his meal, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and sets up mindfulness before him.

'Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and worry, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and worry. Abandoning doubt, he dwells having crossed over doubt, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of doubt.

'Suppose that a man, taking a loan, invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed. He repays his old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his wife. The thought would occur to him, "Before, taking a loan, I invested it in my business affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I have repaid my old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining my wife." Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

'Now suppose that a man falls sick -- in pain and seriously ill. He does not enjoy his meals, and there is no strength in his body. As time passes, he eventually recovers from that sickness. He enjoys his meals and there is strength in his body. The thought would occur to him, "Before, I was sick... Now I am recovered from that sickness. I enjoy my meals and there is strength in my body." Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

'Now suppose that a man is bound in prison. As time passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him, "Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage, safe and sound, with no loss of my property." Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

'Now suppose that a man is a slave, subject to others, not subject to himself, unable to go where he likes. As time passes, he eventually is released from that slavery, subject to himself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where he likes. The thought would occur to him, "Before, I was a slave... Now I am released from that slavery, subject to myself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where I like." Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

'Now suppose that a man, carrying money and goods, is traveling by a road through desolate country. As time passes, he eventually emerges from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him, "Before, carrying money and goods, I was traveling by a road through desolate country. Now I have emerged from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of my property." Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

'In the same way, when these five hindrances are not abandoned in himself, the bhikkhu regards it as a debt, a sickness, a prison, slavery, a road through desolate country. But when these five hindrances are abandoned in himself, he regards it as unindebtedness, good health, release from prison, freedom, a place of security. When he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises. When his mind is filled with rapture, his body becomes tranquil; tranquil in body, he experiences happiness; being happy, his mind becomes concentrated.

  Practicing the First Jhana

'Quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unwholesome states [of mind], he enters and remains in the first Jhana which is accompanied by thinking and more thinking and is filled with rapture and happiness born of seclusion.

  Practicing the Four Brahma̅ Viharas [28] [28a]

76. 'He then dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbuded with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbuded with loving-kindness, vast, exalted, measureless, without hostility, without ill will. [29a]

77. 'Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard without difficulty in all four directions; even so, Va̅seṭṭha, of all things that have shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with a heart set free (ceto-vimutti [30a]) though deep-felt loving-kindness.

'This I say, Va̅seṭṭha, is the way to the state of union with Brahma̅.

78 & 79. 'He then dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbuded with compassion, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbuded with compassion, vast, exalted, measureless, without hostility, without ill will.

'Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard without difficulty in all four directions; even so, Va̅seṭṭha, of all things that have shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with a heart set free (ceto-vimutti) though deep-felt compassion.

'This I say, Va̅seṭṭha, is the way to the state of union with Brahma̅.

'He then dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbuded with appreciative joy, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbuded with appreciative joy, vast, exalted, measureless, without hostility, without ill will.

'Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard without difficulty in all four directions; even so, Va̅seṭṭha, of all things that have shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with a heart set free (ceto-vimutti) though deep-felt appreciative joy.

'This I say, Va̅seṭṭha, is the way to the state of union with Brahma̅.

'He then dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbuded with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbuded with equanimity, vast, exalted, measureless, without hostility, without ill will.

'Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard without difficulty in all four directions; even so, Va̅seṭṭha, of all things that have shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with a heart set free (ceto-vimutti) though deep-felt equanimity.

'This I say, Va̅seṭṭha, is the way to the state of union with Brahma̅.

80. 'Now what do you think, Va̅seṭṭha, will the Bhikkhu who lives thus be in possession of women and of wealth, or will he not?'

'He will not, Gotama!'

'Will he be full of anger, or free from anger?'

'He will be free from anger, Gotama!'

'Will his mind be full of malice, or free from malice?'

'Free from malice, Gotama!'

'Will his mind be tarnished, or pure?'

'It will be pure, Gotama!'

'Will he have self-mastery, or will he not?'

'Surely he will, Gotama!'

81. 'Then you say, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Bhikkhu is free from household and worldly cares, and that Brahma̅ is free from household and worldly cares. Is there then agreement and likeness between the Bhikkhu and Brahma̅?'

'There is, Gotama!'

'Very good, Va̅seṭṭha. Then certainly, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Bhikkhu who is free from household cares should after death, at the break up of the body, become united with Brahma̅, who is the same -- such a thing is in every way possible!

'And so you say, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Bhikkhu is free from anger, and free from malice, pure in mind, and master of himself; and that Brahma̅ is free from anger, and free from malice, pure in mind, and master of himself. Then certainly, Va̅seṭṭha, that the Bhikkhu who is free from anger, free from malice, pure in mind, and master of himself should after death, at the break up of the body, become united with Brahma̅, who is the same -- such a thing is in every way possible!' [31a]

82. When the Lord had finished speaking, the young Brahmins Va̅seṭṭha and Bha̅radva̅ja said to the Blessed One:

'Magnificent, Lord! Magnificent! Just as if one were to place upright what had been overturned, were to reveal what was hidden, were to show the way to one who was lost, or were to hold up a lamp in the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way the Blessed One has -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of Bhikkhus. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life!'

Here ends the Tevijja Sutta. [32]


1a. For additional information on Brahma̅ Viharas practice as a path to Enlightenment, see the following suttas:

There are other suttas, however, where an opposing argument can be made - see for example:

[Go Back]

2a. In addition to Richard Gombrich's book How Buddhism Began, see the article Kindness and Compassion as means to Nirvana in Early Buddhism also by Richard Gombrich. [Go Back]

4a. Bhikkhu is Pali for 'monk. The number 500 should not be taken literally - it just means "a large number." [Go Back]

5. Buddhaghosa says that Kanki lived at Opasada, Tarukkha lived at Icchagala (so MSS., perhaps for Icchanangala), Pokkharasadi (sic MS.) lived at Ukkattha, Janussoni lived at Savatthi, and Todeyya lived at Tudigama. [Go Back]

Janussoni was converted by the Bhaya-bherava Sutta. On Pokkharasadi, see above, pp. 108, 135, 147; and on Todeyya, see above, p. 267; and on all the names, see Majjhima Nikaya, No. 98= Sutta Nipata, 9.

Buddhaghosa adds that because Manasakata was a pleasant place the Brahmins had built huts there on the bank of the river and fenced them in, and used to go and stay there from time to time to repeat their mantras.

6. Janghaviharam anucankamantanam anuvicarantanam. Cankamati is to walk up and down thinking. '[A]fter their bath' has been added from Buddhaghosa, who says that this must be understood to have taken place when, after learning by heart and repeating all day, they, went down in the evening to the riverside to bathe, and then walked up and down on the sand. COMP. Mil. 22; Jat. II, 240,272. [Go Back]

7. Comp. Divyavadana 196, 246; and Anguttara II, pp. 23, 24. [Go Back]

8. This is either mildly sarcastic -- as much as to say, 'that is six of one, and half a dozen of the other' -- or is intended to lead on Va̅seṭṭha to confess still more directly the fact that the different theologians held inconsistent opinions. [Go Back]

9. The MSS. differ as to the last name, and some of them omit the last but one. The Adhvaryu, Taittiriya, Chandoga, and Bahvrica priests -- those skilled in liturgy generally, and in the Yajur, Sama, and Rig Vedas respectively -- are probably meant. If we adopt the other reading for the last in the list, then those priests who relied on liturgy, sacrifice, or chant would be contrasted with those who had 'gone forth' as religieux, either as Tapasas or as Bhikshus. [Go Back]

10. Maggani, which is noteworthy as a curious change of gender. [Go Back]

11. See the note on these names at 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 130. [Go Back]

12. In the text?? 12, 13 are repeated word for word. [Go Back]

13. Andhaveni paramparam samsatta. The Phayre MS. has replaced veni by paveni, after the constant custom of the Burmese MSS. to improve away unusual or difficult expressions. Buddhaghosa explains andhaveni by andhapaveni; and tells a tale of a wicked wight, who meeting a company of blind men, told them of a certain village wherein plenty of good food was to be had. When they besought him for hire to lead them there, he took the money, made one blind man catch hold of his stick, the next of that one, and so on, and then led them on till they came to a wilderness. There he deserted them, and they all -- still holding each the other, and vainly, and with tears, seeking both their guide and the path -- came to a miserable end! Comp. M. II, 170. [Go Back]

14. The words of the question are repeated in the text in this and the following answers. It must be remembered, for these sections, that the Sun and Moon were gods just as much as Brahma̅ and that the Moon always comes first in Nikaya and other ancient texts. [Go Back]

14a. Richard Gombrich in How Buddhism Began, page 59 says "I suspect that [the Buddha's] remark is a jocular allusion to the Upanisadic two paths at death." [Go Back]

15. The text repeats at length the words of?? 12, 13, 14. [Go Back]

16. Samatittika kakapeyya. See on this phrase the note in Buddhist Suttas (S. B. E.), pp. 178, 179. [Go Back]

17. The Sinhalese MSS. omit Mahiddhi and Yama, but repeat the verb, 'we call upon,' three times after Brahma̅. It is possible that the Burmese copyist has wrongly inserted them to remove the strangeness of this repetition. The commentary is silent. [Go Back]

18. The Buddha, as usual, here takes the 'further bank' in the meaning attached to it by the theologians he is talking to, as union with Brahma̅. In his own system, of course, the 'further bank' is Arahatship. So Anguttara V, 232, 233, and elsewhere. [Go Back]

19. Gathita mucchita ajjhopanna. See A. I, 74, 274; Udana VII, 3, 4; Sum. 59, &c. [Go Back]

22. Sapariggaho va Brahma̅ apariggaho va ti. Buddhaghosa says on Va̅seṭṭha's reply, 'Kamacchandassa, abhavato itthipariggahena apariggaho,' thus restricting the 'possession' to women. But the reference is no doubt to the first 'hindrance'; and the word in the text, though doubtless alluding to possession of women also. includes more. Compare, on the general idea of the passage, the English expression, no encumbrances,' and Jacobi, 'Jaina-Sutras' (S. B. E.) I, xxiii. [Go Back]

23. Asankilittha-citto. That is, says Buddhaghosa, free from sloth & torpor and restlessness & worry.' [Go Back]

24. Vasavatti va avasavatti va. Buddhaghosa says, in explanation of the answer, 'By the absence of wavering he has his mind under control (vase vatteti).' [Go Back]

25. Asiditva samsidanti. Confident in their knowledge of the Vedas, and in their practice of Vedic ceremonies, they neglect higher things; and so, sinking into folly and superstition, 'they are arriving only at despair, thinking the while that they are crossing over into some happier land.' [Go Back]

25a. Richard Gombrich in How Buddhism Began, page 59, points out that the Buddha knows the way from personal experience -- it's not a place where one goes after death -- it's a place where the Buddha currently resides! This can only mean that the Buddha is using "Union with Brahma̅" as a metaphor for Nibbana -- not as has often been mistaken, as some after death destination. [Go Back]

26. Buddhaghosa takes this to mean, 'Save me of the Brahmin race.' [Go Back]

28. These paragraphs occur frequently; see. inter alia, Maha-Sudassana Sutta II, 8, in Rhys Davids's 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. B. E.). It will be seen from 'Buddhism,' pp. 170, 171, that these meditations play a great part in later Buddhism occupying very much the place that prayer takes in Christianity. A fifth, the meditation on Impurity, has been added, at an unknown time, before the last. These four (or five), are called the Brahma̅ Viharas. [Go Back]

28a. Notice that there is no indication that one leaves the 1st Jhana -- which contains thinking and more thinking -- in order to begin pervading the world with the Brahma̅ Viharas. It would appear that the Buddha intends one to convert the thinking and more thinking into thoughts (feelings) of love, etc. Remember that there is no distinction made between thinking and feeling (thoughts and emotions) in Pali -- the "thoughts of love, etc." in idiomatic English would be "feelings of love, etc." [Go Back]

29a. Thanissaro Bhikkhu translates this paragraph as "He keeps pervading the first direction [the east] -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will." [Go Back]

30a. Richard Gombrich in How Buddhism Began, page 60, notes that ceto-vimutti means "release of mind" (or actually "release of heart-mind") -- and in chapter 4, pages 110-112, shows that this is the same as pañña-vimutti -- and that both mean full awakening. [Go Back]

31a. Notice that the Buddha is saying that such a Bhikkhu is already the same as Brahama! [Go Back]

32. Literally 'The Suttanta about those who have the knowledge of the Three (Vedas).' Sec p.303, where the names of these, 'doctors' are given. [Go Back]


How Buddhism Began by Richard Gombrich
Kindness and Compassion as means to Nirvana in Early Buddhism by Richard Gombrich - RG replies to Bhikkhu Bodhi's complaints in this very interesting article.

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